Advanced prostate cancer is when the cancer is no longer contained within the prostate gland, and cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. 

There are different stages of advanced prostate cancer:

  • Locally advanced – the cancer has extended beyond the prostate and may include seminal vesicles (tumour stage T3) or other surrounding organs such as the bladder or rectum (tumour stage T4)
  • Metastatic – the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as bone.

For some men, there is sometimes no evidence of disease spreading to other parts of the body, either through a bone scan or a CT (computed tomography) scan, but their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rises even after they have had treatment. The rising PSA is a form of progression showing the disease is active, known as ‘biochemical progression’.

You can read more about ‘What is advanced prostate cancer’ in one of the booklets in this series: Diagnosis.