Advanced prostate cancer - Prostate cancer that has spread to surrounding tissue or has spread to other parts of the body.

Cancer - A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control.

Cultural engagement - Actively involve people with respect to their cultural needs.

Localised prostate cancer - Prostate cancer that is at an early stage and is still contained within the prostate gland.

Locally advanced prostate cancer - Cancer which has spread beyond the prostate capsule and may include the seminal vesicles but still confined to the prostate region.

Metastatic prostate cancer - Small groups of cells have spread from the primary tumour site and started to grow in other parts of the body – such as bones.

Multidisciplinary care - A team approach to cancer treatment and planning.

Palliative care - An approach that improves the quality of life of the person and their families facing problems associated with a life-threatening illness. Prevention and relief of suffering is provided through early identification and assessment and treatment of pain and other problems such as physical, psychosocial and spiritual.

Prognosis - The likely outcome of a person’s disease.

Prostate cancer - Cancer of the prostate, the male organ that sits next to the urinary bladder and contributes to semen (sperm fluid) production.

Prostate gland - The prostate gland is normally the size of a walnut. It is located between the bladder and the penis and sits in front of the rectum. It produces fluid that forms part of semen.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) - A protein produced by cells in the prostate gland, which is usually found in the blood in larger than normal amounts when prostate cancer is present

Quality of life - An individual’s overall appraisal of their situation and wellbeing. Quality of life encompasses symptoms of disease and side effects of treatment, functional capacity, social interactions and relationships, and occupational functioning.

Self-management - An awareness and active participation by people with cancer in their recovery, recuperation, and rehabilitation, to minimise the consequences of treatment, promote survival, health and wellbeing.

Shared decision making - Integration of a patient’s values, goals and concerns with the best available evidence about benefits, risks and uncertainties of treatment, in order to achieve appropriate health care decisions. It involves clinicians and patients making decisions about the patient’s management together.

Support group - People on whom an individual can rely for the provision of emotional caring and concern, and reinforcement of a sense of personal worth and value. Other components of support may include provision of practical or material aid, information, guidance, feedback and validation of the individual’s stressful experiences and coping choices.

Supportive care - Improving quality of life for people with cancer from different perspectives, including physical, social, emotional, financial and spiritual.

Survivorship - In cancer, survivorship focuses on the health and life of a person with cancer beyond the diagnosis and treatment phases. Survivorship includes issues related to follow-up care, late effects of treatment, second cancers, and quality of life.


Australian Psychological Society.


Bidstrup, P.E., Johansen, C., & Mitchell, A.J. (2011). Screening for cancerrelated distress: Summary of evidence from tools to programmes. Acta- Oncologica, 50(2), 194-204.

Bloch, S., Love, A., Macuean, M., et al. (2007). Psychological adjustment of men with prostate cancer: a review of the literature. BioPsychosocial Medicine, 1:2.

Bokhour, B.G., Powell, L.L., & Clark, J.A. (2007). No less a man: reconstructing identity after prostate cancer. Communication & Medicine, 4(1), 99-109.

Cancer Council NSW (2013). Emotions and cancer – a guide for men with cancer, their families and friends.

Couper, J.W., Bloch, S., Love, A., et al. (2006). The psychosocial impact of prostate cancer on patients and their partners. Medical Journal of Australia, 185(8), 428-432.

Edwards, B., & Clarke, V. (2004). The psychological impact of a cancer diagnosis on families: the influence of family functioning and patients illness characteristics on depression and anxiety. Psychooncology, 13(8), 562-576.

Fan, A. (2002). Psychological and psychosocial effects of prostate cancer. Nursing Standard, 17(13), 33-37.

Lintz, K., Moynihan, C., Steginaga, S., et al. (2003). Prostate cancer patients support and psychological care needs: survey from a non-surgical oncology clinic. Psycho-oncology, 12(8), 769-783.

Litwin, M.S., Gore, J.L., Kwan, L., et al. (2007). Quality of life after surgery, external beam irradiation or brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Cancer, 109(11), 2239-2247.

Mitchell, A.J. (2010). Short screening tools for cancerrelated distress: a review and diagnostic validity meta-analysis. Journal of the National Comprehensive. Cancer Network, 8, 487-494.

National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre. (2010). Finding the words – starting a conversation when your cancer has progressed.

National Cancer Institute. (2012). What you need to know about prostate cancer..

Prostate Cancer UK. (2013). Living with and after prostate cancer.

Roth, A. J., Weinberger, M. I., & Nelson, C. J. (2008). Prostate cancer: psychosocial implications and management. Future Oncology, 4(4), 561-568.

Wei, J., Dunn, R., Sandler, H., et al. (2002). Comprehensive comparison of healthrelated quality of life after contemporary therapies for localized prostate cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20(2), 557-566.